INDICATIONS : BUPIVACAINE
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Bupivacaine is a local anaesthetic drug belonging to the amino amide group. AstraZeneca commonly markets it under various trade names, including Marcain, Marcaine, Sensorcaine and Vivacaine.
Compared to other local anaesthetics, bupivacaine is markedly cardiotoxic. However, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur.
Bupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, epidural, and intrathecal anaesthesia. Bupivacaine often is administered by epidural injection before total hip arthroplasty. It also is commonly injected to surgical wound sites to reduce pain for up to 20 hours after the surgery. Sometimes, bupivacaine is co-administered with epinephrine to prolong the duration of its action, fentanyl for epidural analgesia, or glucose.
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What is Anesthesia? An anesthetic (anaesthetic), is a drug that causes anesthesia — reversible loss of sensation. They contrast with analgesics (painkillers), which relieve pain without eliminating sensation. These drugs are generally administered to facilitate surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. Many are rarely used outside of anesthesia, although others are used commonly by all disciplines. Anesthetics are categorized in to two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body while maintaining consciousness. Combinations of anesthetics are sometimes used for their synergistic and additive therapeutic effects, however, adverse effects may also be increased.