INDICATIONS : LIDOCAINE
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Lidocaine , (Xylocaine) or lignocaine (former BAN) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. Lidocaine is used topically to relieve itching, burning and pain from skin inflammations, injected as a dental anesthetic or as a local anesthetic for minor surgery.
Lidocaine alters signal conduction in neurons by blocking the fast voltage gated sodium (Na+) channels in the neuronal cell membrane that are responsible for signal propagation. With sufficient blockage the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron will not depolarize and will thus fail to transmit an action potential. This creates the anesthetic effect by not merely preventing pain signals from propagating to the brain but by stopping them before they begin. Careful titration allows for a high degree of selectivity in the blockage of sensory neurons, whereas higher concentrations will also affect other modalities of neuron signaling.
Contraindications for the use of lidocaine include:
* Heart block, second or third degree (without pacemaker)
* Severe sinoatrial block (without pacemaker)
* Serious adverse drug reaction to lidocaine or amide local anaesthetics
* Concurrent treatment with quinidine, flecainide, disopyramide, procainamide (Class I antiarrhythmic agents)
* Prior use of Amiodarone hydrochloride
* Hypotension not due to Arrhythmia
* Accelerated idioventricular rhythm
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What is Anesthesia? An anesthetic (anaesthetic), is a drug that causes anesthesia — reversible loss of sensation. They contrast with analgesics (painkillers), which relieve pain without eliminating sensation. These drugs are generally administered to facilitate surgery. A wide variety of drugs are used in modern anesthetic practice. Many are rarely used outside of anesthesia, although others are used commonly by all disciplines. Anesthetics are categorized in to two classes: general anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of consciousness, and local anesthetics, which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body while maintaining consciousness. Combinations of anesthetics are sometimes used for their synergistic and additive therapeutic effects, however, adverse effects may also be increased.